Chapter 1. Despondency of Arjuna: Verse 26

Sanskrit Verse

तत्रापश्यत्स्थितान् पार्थ: पितृनथ पितामहान् |
आचार्यान्मातुलान्भ्रातृन्पुत्रान्पौत्रान्सखींस्तथा ||


Tatraapashyat-sthitaan paarthah pitreen-atha pitaamahaan

English Translation

There the son of Preeta (Arjuna) could see his fathers(in age & equal in reverence to), grandfathers, teachers, uncles, brothers, sons, grandsons and friends.

Commentary & Explanation

Arjuna saw his relatives eager to fight each other on both sides.

He saw friends of his father like Bhurishravas;

Grandfathers like Bhishma, Somadutta;

Teachers like Drona, Kripa;

Uncles like Shalya, Shakuni;

Brothers like Yudhisthira, Karna, Bhima, Nakula, Sahadeva, Duryodhana, Dushshasana, Vikarna, Yuyutsu;

Sons like Abhimanyu, Shrutakeerti, Lakshmana;

Friends like Satyaki, Ashvathama, Krishna;

Numerous young warriors who are young to be his grandsons

Our General idea of pleasure is derived from sense organs- Eyes, Nose, tongue, Mouth, Genitals; these are very dear to us (like relatives), these are all we know of happiness; the higher happiness that is derived from the self alone is still not known to us, When one begins to realize that the pleasures originating from senses are temporary and impermanent, one starts practicing spiritual things, after tasting the initial inner peace through self-control (through  meditation, devotional service, Aatma-vichara(who am I?)) one changes the direction of his life towards attaining Moksha(liberation) where he attains both Bliss and Freedom. There starts his fight with sense pleasures.

All Kith and kin of Arjuna allegorically represent sense-pleasures which he had to overcome. Also the list of kith and kin represents the Six Enemies(Ari-Shad-Varga) of man like- Desire(Kama), Anger(Krodha), Greed(Lobha), Attachment(Moha), Pride(Mada), Matsarya(Envy) which one has to defeat to gain freedom from bondage.

Note: Here defeating sense organs does not mean perversion where one tortures himself to restrain from sense pleasures, but through persistent spiritual practices of Meditation, rationality & devotion where one transcends his desires.



AapashyatHe could see
SthitaanPositioned, standing
PaarthahSon of Preeta(Arjuna)
MaatulaanMaternal uncles