Chapter 1. Despondency of Arjuna: Verse 2

Sanskrit Verse

सञ्जय उवाच ।
दृष्ट्वा तु पाण्डवानीकं व्यूढं दुर्योधनस्तदा ।
आचार्यमुपसङ्गम्य राजा वचनमब्रवीत् ।।


Sanjaya uvaacha
drishtvaa tu paandavaaneekam vyoodham duryodhanastadaa
aachaaryam-upasangamya raajaa vachanam-abraveet

English Translation

Sanjaya Said: Duryodhana after seeing the armies of the Pandavas in the battle formation went to his teacher Drona and spoke the following:

Commentary & Explanation

Duryodhana Drona.jpg

Both the armies were standing on the battle field with various battle formations like:

  1. Ardha-chandra-vyūha (crescent moon formation)
  2. Garbha-vyūha (womb)
  3. Garuda Vyuh (eagle)
  4. Krauncha vyuha (Bird)
  5. Kurma vyuha (tortoise)
  6. Makara-vyuha (crocodile)
  7. Mala vyuha (garland)
  8. Mandala vyuha (galaxy)
  9. Oormi vyuha (ocean)
  10. Padmavyuha(Lotus/circle)
  11. Sarvatobhadra-vyūha (grandest of formations)
  12. Shakata-vyūha (cart)
  13. Sringataka Vyuha(horn)
  14. Suchimukha-vyūha (needle)
  15. Sura & Asura vyuha(demi-gods & demons)
  16. Trishula vyuha (trident)
  17. Vajra-vyūha (Diamond/ thunderbolt)

Duryodhana seeing the battle formations of Pandavas, went to his teacher Drona to discuss further counter measures & strategies.

Duryodhana was the eldest son of his father Dhritarashtra. Dhritarashtra had 100 sons and a daughter. Duryodhana had taken power into his own hands from his disabled father, he was at the helm of things, he was the prime reason for the dispute between Kauravas and Pandavas. He neither listened to the counsel of wise men nor his inner conscience.

Drona, the son of sage Bharadwaja had received all his knowledge of weapons and battle from Parashurama, who gifted his knowledge to Drona. Drona was the preceptor of both the Kauravas and the Pandavas. Since Pandavas had been living in exile for 13 years Drona was accustomed to siding with the Kauravas.

Drona was a poor Brahmin who lived in the forest contemplating on the highest truth, spending his time on meditations, spiritual rites(Yajnas). His son Ashwathama was made fun of for his poverty (Ashwathama could not afford milk, so he would drink flour mixed water to act as if he was drinking milk), Drona could not tolerate his son's painful state. 

Drona deciding to use his skill of weaponry goes to Bhrishma the grandsire of Kauravas and takes up the job of training the Kuru children in art of weaponry.

Drona at the time of war decides to side with the Kauravas, it was perhaps his loyalty to those who had fed him and his family at difficult times or perhaps it was the old habit which he could not break.

Spiritual View: Dronabeing accustomed to siding with the Kauravas decided to fight for Kauravas despite his knowing that the Pandavas were fighting for the righteous cause, just like the mind falls into same old weaknesses because of habit.

Kauravas were 100 in number, just like bad qualities are numerous in number and appear undefeatable at first to a spiritual aspirant (However by listening to an enlightened master(krishna) and adhering to the virtues one came overcome all weaknesses one by one in time)



DrstvaAfter seeing
VyudhamArranged in a military phalanx
DuryodhanaKing Duryodhana
TadaAt that time
AcharymThe teacher
RajaThe king